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References – Model National Lead Safety Policy Proposal

Addendum 4 – References

References Addendum 5 of Model National Policy Proposal @ LeadSafeWorld

Abrahamsen, B; van Staa, T; Ariely, R; Olson, M; Cooper, C (2009) Excess mortality following hip fracture: a systematic epidemiological review, Osteoporosis International, 20, pages1633-1650 (2009), Oct-2009 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00198-009-0920-3

Alarcon, WA (2016) Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Employed Adults – United States, 1994–2013 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 63(55);59–65, 14-Oct-2016, https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/63/wr/mm6355a5.htm

Angelon-Gaetz, KA; Klaus, K; Chaudhry, EA; Bean, DK (2018) Lead in Spices, Herbal Remedies, and Ceremonial Powders Sampled from Home Investigations for Children with Elevated Blood Lead Levels – North Carolina, 2011–2018, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), 23-Nov-2018, https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/mm6746a2.htm  

Arora, M; Reichenberg, A; Willfors, C; Austin, C; Gennings, C; Berggren, S; Lichtenstein, P; Anckarsäter, H; Tammimies, K; Bölte, S (2017) Fetal and postnatal metal dysregulation in autism Nature Communications, 1-Jun-2017, https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms15493#Sec8

Attenborough, D (2019) Our Planet: A Reason for Hope, 9-Apr-2019 https://www.ourplanet.com/en/video/a-reason-for-hope

Australian Government Department of the Environment (2014), Lead Alert: The six step guide to painting your home https://www.dcceew.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/lead-paint-fifth-edition.pdf

BBC and Edwards, T (BBC London environment correspondent) (2021) Petrol lead still exists in London air 22 years after ban: Lead from petrol persists in London’s air despite it being banned in 1999, research suggests. BBC, 22-Jun-2021, https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-london-57564953

Brennan-Olsen, S (2018) Why hip fractures in the elderly are often a death sentence, The Conversation 4-Jun-2018, https://theconversation.com/why-hip-fractures-in-the-elderly-are-often-a-death-sentence-95784

Caldwell, KL; Cheng, P-Y; Jarrett, JM; Makhmudov, A; Vance, K; Ward, CD; Jones, RL and Mortensen, ME (2017), Laboratory Measurement Implications of Decreasing Childhood Blood Lead Levels, 17-Jul-2017, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5709716/

CalRecycle (2023) Product Stewardship and Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR), https://calrecycle.ca.gov/epr/

CDC (Centers for Disease Control) (2019) HHLPSS [Healthy Homes and Lead Poisoning Surveillance System] Data Management Platform, 30-Jul-2019, https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/data/hhlpss.htm

CDC National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Environmental Health Science and Practice (2021) National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 18-Nov-2021 https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/data/nhanes.htm

CDC (no date) Blood Lead (2011 – 2018) – Geometric mean and selected percentiles of blood concentrations (in µg/dL) for the U.S. population from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), no date but assumed to be 2022 https://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/report/pdf/cgroup2_LBXBPB_2011-p.pdf; accessible via https://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/data_tables.html

CDC National Center for Environmental Health (2022a) Climate Effects on Health, 25-Apr-22, https://www.cdc.gov/climateandhealth/effects/default.htm

CDC (2022b), Overview of the National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, 24-Mar-2022, https://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/overview_ner.html

CDC (2022c), CDC’s Blood Lead Reference Value, 2-Dec-2022, https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/data/blood-lead-reference-value.htm

CDC (2023) Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) (Index), last updated 29-Jun-2023 https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/index.html

Cornell Cooperative Extension of Oneida County (2019) Lead Poisoning… The Perfect Predator, 2-Mar-2019, https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=JSCMVGiNGjQ&mibextid=tejx2t

Dignam, T; Kaufmann, RB; LeStourgeon, L; and Brown, MJ (2019) Control of Lead Sources in the United States, 1970-2017: Public Health Progress and Current Challenges to Eliminating Lead Exposure, HHS Public Access. J Public Health Manag Pract., 16-May-2019, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6522252/

Fisher, S (2023) Americans’ Old Car Batteries Are Making Mexican Workers Sick, The New York Times, 20-Mar-2023, https://www.nytimes.com/2023/03/20/world/americas/car-batteries-lead-mexico.html

Flegal AR and Smith DR (1992) Lead levels in preindustrial humans, New England Journal of Medicine 326:1293-1294 May 7, 1992 DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199205073261916, 7-May-1992, https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM199205073261916#t=article

Freeman, R (1969) Chronic lead poisoning in children: A review of 90 children diagnosed in Sydney, 1948-1967 – SYNOPSIS, The Medical Journal of Australia (MJA) March 1969, https://doi.org/10.5694/j.1326-5377.1970.tb116904.x

Freeman, R (1970) Chronic Lead Poisoning In Children: A Review Of 90 Children Diagnosed In Sydney, 1948-1967 1. Epidemiological Aspects, The Medical Journal of Australia (MJA) March 1st 1970, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.5694/j.1326-5377.1970.tb116904.x

G7 Climate, Energy and Environment Ministers (2022) G7 Climate, Energy and Environment Ministers’ Communiqué, Berlin, May 27th, 2022, Bundesregierung / Information Office of the Federal Government, Germany, 27-May-2022 https://www.bundesregierung.de/resource/blob/974430/2044350/84e380088170c69e6b6ad45dbd133ef8/2022-05-27-1-climate-ministers-communique-data.pdf?download=1

G7 Environment Ministers (2022) Lead as a major threat for human health and the environment – an integrated approach strengthening cooperation toward solutions, G7 Workshop, Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz, nukleare Sicherheit und Verbraucherschutz (BMUV) / Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Nuclear Safety and Consumer Protection, Germany, 9-10-Nov-2022, https://www.bmuv.de/fileadmin/Daten_BMU/Download_PDF/Europa___International/outcome_g7_workshop_lead_2022_bf.pdf

Gioia, SMCL; Babinski, M; Weiss, DJ; Spiro, B; Kerr, AAFS; Veríssimo, TG; Ruiz, I; Prates JCM (2017) An isotopic study of atmospheric lead in a megacity after phasing out of leaded gasoline ABSTRACT ” derived from vehicular exhaust (mostly gasoline) and traffic dust resuspension, with the admixture of industrial emissions – cemAn, Atmospheric Environment, 1-Jan-2017, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1352231016308561

Gore, A (2006) Slide 4: 1000 Years of CO2 and Global Warming, from Climate Proxies – How can you measure the climate of the past? Slide 4 is from An Inconvenient Truth (the 2006 movie) Slide Show and Transcript Published by Stanley Stephens, circa 2018 https://slideplayer.com/slide/12455949/

Gottesfeld, P, Occupational Knowledge International; Chavez Arce, SC, Casa Cem; and Macias Raya, L, Casa Cem (2023) Hazardous Exports Contribute to Soil Contamination at Lead Battery Recycling Plants in Mexico, Feb-2023, http://okinternational.org/docs/SoilMexico_Final eng.pdf

Haentjens, P; Magaziner, J; Colón-Emeric, CS; Vanderschueren, D; Milisen, K; Velkeniers, B; Boonen, S (2010) Meta-analysis: excess mortality after hip fracture among older women and men, Ann Intern Med. 2010 Mar 16;152(6):380-90. 16-Mar-2010 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3010729/pdf/nihms234743.pdf

Hickey, V (2023) Tackling the pollution crisis to support healthier people and planet, World Bank, 2-Feb-2023, https://blogs.worldbank.org/voices/tackling-pollution-crisis-support-healthier-people-and-planet

Institute for Work & Health (2015) Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention, Apr-2015, https://www.iwh.on.ca/what-researchers-mean-by/primary-secondary-and-tertiary-prevention

Katsoulis, M; Benetou, V; Karapetyan, T; Feskanich, D; Grodstein, F; Pettersson-Kymmer, U; Eriksson, S; Wilsgaard, T; Jørgensen, L; Ahmed, LA; Schöttker, B; Brenner, H; Bellavia A; Wolk, A; Kubinova, R; Stegeman, B; Bobak, M; Boffetta, P; Trichopoulou, A (2017) Excess mortality after hip fracture in elderly persons from Europe and the USA: the CHANCES project, Journal of Internal Medicine, 2017, 281; 300-310, 17-Jan-2017 https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/joim.12586

McFarland, MJ; Hauer, ME and Reuben, A (2022) Half of US population exposed to adverse lead levels in early childhood, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) Published 7 March 2022, Updated 11 March 2022, https://www.pnas.org/doi/full/10.1073/pnas.2118631119

O’Brien, E (2020) Can the lead poisoning of a 3 yr old in Australia help end lead poisoning from Ayurvedic medications globally? LEAD Action News vol 21 no 1 – LANv21n1, The LEAD Group Inc, 30-Sep-2020, https://lead.org.au/lanv21n1/LANv21n1-03.pdf  

O’Brien, E (2021) Celebrating the End of the Leaded Petrol Era, The LEAD Group Inc, 31-Aug-2021, https://leadsafeworld.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/08/LANv21n3-Celebrating-the-End-of-the-Leaded-Petrol-Era.pdf

O’Brien, E; Roberts, A; Dost, C; Qu, B; Steinhaeuser, E and Desmond, H (2005) “Green Lead”: oxymoron or future vision? Based on the Presentation of Elizabeth O’Brien at the Sustainable Development conference hosted by the Minerals Council of Australia in Alice Springs, Northern Ter Nov 1st 2005, The LEAD Group Inc, 1-Nov-2005, https://www.lead.org.au/bblp/Green_lead/cpbatteries.html  

O’Brien, E and Taylor, R (2009) What can I do about climate change AND lead? The LEAD Group Inc, 15-Dec-2009, https://lead.org.au/fs/What_can_I_do_about_climate_change_AND_lead_20091217.pdf  

OK International (Occupational Knowledge International) (2007) BEST Standard – Better Environmental Sustainability Targets (BEST) certification standard provides recognition for lead battery manufacturers that meet minimum emission standards and agree to take back used batteries for environmentally sound recycling, Jul-2007 http://www.okinternational.org/lead-batteries/BEST-Standard  

Park, A (2011) The Hot Flashes of Menopause May Protect Women’s Hearts, Time USA, 24-Feb-2011, https://healthland.time.com/2011/02/24/the-hot-flashes-of-menopause-may-protect-womens-hearts/

Pearce, F (2020) Getting the Lead Out: Why Battery Recycling Is a Global Health Hazard, Yale Environment 360, 2-Nov-2020, https://e360.yale.edu/features/getting-the-lead-out-why-battery-recycling-is-a-global-health-hazard  

Prengaman, RD and Mirza, AH (2017) 20 Recycling concepts for lead–acid batteries, Book Chapter, from “Lead-Acid Batteries for Future Automobiles” 2017, Pages 575-598, Science Direct, 3-Mar-2017, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444637000000209

Rabito, FA; Kocak, M; Werthmann, DW; Tylavsky, FA; Palmer, CD; Parsons, PJ (2014), Changes in low levels of lead over the course of pregnancy and the association with birth outcomes, Reproductive Toxicology, 22-Oct-2014, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0890623814002597?via%3Dihub

Raisi-Estabragh, Z; Cooper, J; Salih, A; Raman, B; Lee, AM; Neubauer, S; Harvey, NC; Petersen, SE (2022) Cardiovascular disease and mortality sequelae of COVID-19 in the UK Biobank, Cardiac Risk factors and prevention, Heart 2023;109:119-126. doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2022-32149, 24-Oct-2022, https://www.heart.bmj.com/content/heartjnl/109/2/119.full; https://heart.bmj.com/content/heartjnl/109/2/119.full.pdf

Resongles, E; Dietze, V; Green, DC; Harrison, RM; Ochoa-Gonzalez, R; Tremper AJ, and Weiss DJ (2021) Strong evidence for the continued contribution of lead deposited during the 20th century to the atmospheric environment in London of today, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 21-Jun-2021, https://www.pnas.org/doi/10.1073/pnas.2102791118  

Roberts, A; O’Brien, E and Taylor, R (2020) Health effects of a blood lead level below 10 µg/dL in both adults and children and even below 1 µg, The LEAD Group Inc, 20-Sep-2020, https://leadsafeworld.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Health-Effects-of-PbB-Level-Below-10-ug-per-dL-Even-Below-1-ug-per-dL-20200922.pdf  

Sample, JA (2022) Childhood lead poisoning: Exposure and prevention, Up To Date, 18-Jul-2022, https://www.uptodate.com/contents/childhood-lead-poisoning-exposure-and-prevention  

Schubert, J; Riley, JE and Tyler, SA (1978) Combined Effects in Toxicology – A Rapid Systematic Testing Procedure: Cadmium, Mercury, and Lead, Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 4:763-776, 1978, 24-Jan-1978, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15287397809529698  

Schulz, C; Angerer, J; Ewers, U; Kolossa-Gehring, M (2007) The German Human Biomonitoring Commission, International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 22-May-2007, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1438463907000466

Szmuilowicz, ED; Manson, JAE; Rossouw, JE; Howard, BV, Margolis, KL; Greep, NC; Brzyski, RG; Stefanick, ML; O’Sullivan, MJ; Wu, CY; Allison, M; Grobbee, DE; Johnson, KC; Ockene, JK; Rodriguez, BL; Sarto, GE; Vitolins, MZ and Seely, EW (2011) Vasomotor symptoms and cardiovascular events in postmenopausal women, Menopause. 2011 Jun; 18(6): 603-610. doi: 10.1097/gme.0b013e3182014849) NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information), Jun-2011, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3123435/  

Taylor, MP; Winder, C and Lanphear, BP (2012) Eliminating childhood lead toxicity in Australia: a call to lower the intervention level, Med J Aust 2012; 197 (9): 493. doi: 10.5694/mja12.11159, 5-Nov-2012, https://www.mja.com.au/system/files/issues/197_09_051112/letters_051112_fm-7.pdf  

Taylor, MP and Lanphear, BP (2020), Blood lead levels in children have fallen, but vigilance is still needed, Med J Aust 2020; 212 (4): 11 doi: 10.5694/mja2.50495, 2-Mar-2020, https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2020/212/4/blood-lead-levels-children-have-fallen-vigilance-still-needed  

Tsai, PL and Hatfield, TH (2011) Global Benefits From the Phaseout of Leaded Fuel – Going Unleaded, Journal of Environmental Health, Dec-2011, https://www.lead.org.au/Global_Benefits_from_the_Phaseout_of_Leaded_Fuel-Going_Unleaded_201112.pdf  

UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development) (no date) Circular Economy, https://unctad.org/topic/trade-and-environment/circular-economy  

UNEP (UN Environment Programme) (no date) Promoting the Environmentally Sound Management of Waste Lead Acid Batteries (WLAB), https://www.unep.org/explore-topics/chemicals-waste/what-we-do/emerging-issues/lead-acid-batteries  

UNICEF (2020) The Toxic Truth: Children’s Exposure to Lead Pollution Undermines a Generation of Future Potential, Jul-2020, https://www.unicef.org/reports/toxic-truth-childrens-exposure-to-lead-pollution-2020  

US EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) (2002) Lead Laws and Regulations, 18-Aug-2002, https://www.epa.gov/lead/lead-laws-and-regulations  

US EPA (2011) Wastes – Resource Conservation – Common Wastes & Materials – Batteries, no date, but archived on 2-Feb-2011 at Archive.org, https://web.archive.org/web/20110202212818/http:/www.epa.gov/waste/conserve/materials/battery.htm

US EPA (no date) Lead Renovation, Repair and Painting Program, https://www.epa.gov/lead/lead-renovation-repair-and-painting-program  

US EPA (2022) Lead and Lead Compounds; Lowering of Reporting Thresholds (Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Program), 26-Apr-22, https://www.epa.gov/toxics-release-inventory-tri-program/lead-and-lead-compounds-lowering-reporting-thresholds  

US NTP (US National Toxicology Program) (2021), NTP Monograph on Health Effects of Low-Level Lead, 13-Jun-2012, https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/ohat/lead/final/monographhealtheffectslowlevellead_newissn_508.pdf  

Vella, V; O’Brien, E; Idris, E; Wibowo, E; Zhu, HXX; & Choong, E (2020) Health Impacts of Lead Poisoning – A preliminary listing of the health effects & symptoms of lead poisoning, first published 24-Jun-2005, updated Sep-2020, The LEAD Group https://leadsafeworld.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/The-LEAD-Group-Fact-Sheet-Health-Impacts-of-Lead-Poisoning-202009.pdf

Weiss, D; Tomasallo, CD; Meiman, JG; Alarcon, W; Graber, NM; Bisgard, KM; Anderson, HA (2017) Elevated Blood Lead Levels Associated with Retained Bullet Fragments United States, 2003–2012, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 66(5);130–133 ,10-Feb-2017 https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/66/wr/mm6605a2.htm

Whitton, E; O’Brien, E; and Roberts, A (2009) Lead Poisoning and Climate Change – LEAD Action News vol 9 no 4, The LEAD Group Inc, 21-Sep-2009, https://lead.org.au/lanv9n4/LEAD_Action_News_vol_9_no_4.pdf  

WHO (World Health Organisation) (2009) GLOBAL HEALTH RISKS – Mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks, WHO, 2009, https://web.archive.org/web/20091115051259/http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/GlobalHealthRisks_report_full.pdf  

WHO (2010) Childhood Lead Poisoning, Dec-2010, https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/136571/9789241500333_eng.pdf?sequen  

Wilhelm, M; Heinzow, B; Angerer, J and Schulz, C (2010) Reassessment of critical lead effects by the German Human Biomonitoring Commission results in suspension of the human biomonitoring values (HBM I and HBM II) for lead in blood of children and adults, International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, Jul-2010, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S143846391000043X  

Workman, D (2022a) Top Lead Exports by Country, World’s Top Exports, references accessed 26-Aug-2022, https://www.worldstopexports.com/top-lead-exports-by-country/

Workman, D (2022b) Top Coal Exports by Country, World’s Top Exports, references accessed 20-May-2022, https://www.worldstopexports.com/coal-exports-country/

Workman, D (2022c) Petroleum Gas Exports by Country, World’s Top Exports, references accessed 28-May-2022, https://www.worldstopexports.com/petroleum-gas-exports-country/  

Workman, D (2022d) Crude Oil Exports by Country, World’s Top Exports, references accessed 22-Jun-2022, https://www.worldstopexports.com/worlds-top-oil-exports-country/

Zhang, X-L; McGlothan, JL; Miry, O; Stansfield, KH; Loth, MK; Stanton, PK; Guilarte, TR (2018) From the Cover: 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone Rescues Lead-Induced Impairment of Vesicular Release: A Novel Therapeutic Approach for Lead Intoxicated Children, Toxicol Sci. 2018 Jan 1;161(1):186-195. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfx210, 1-Jan-2018, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5837521/pdf/kfx210.pdf

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